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From Kelly's Post Office Directory of Essex, Herts, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, 1867

Brighton, with Hove and Cliftonville

This fashionable sea-bathing place, municipal and parliamentary borough is in the Eastern division of the County, Whalebone hundred, and rape of Lewes, and is distant from London by railway 50½ miles, and 51 by the road through Croydon, Balcombe, and Cuckfield, 29¾ from Reigate, 6 from Shoreham, 10¾ from Worthing, 21 from Arundel, 28¼ from Chichester, 44¾ from Portsmouth, 34½ from Hastings, 14¼ from Newhaven, 8¼ from Lewes, and 26 from Horsham.
The ancient name of Brighton was Brighthelmstone, or Brighthelm, the name given by the Anglo-Saxons. The first settlers were a party of Flemish fishermen, who located themselves here soon after the Conquest to pursue their occupation. Local historians assert that the Druids had selected this place as a residence, in consequence of the salubrity of its situation. At the Norman Conquest, the "Domesday Book" states that Brighthelmstone, with other local possessions, was given to William De Worrenne, the son-in-law of the Conqueror. In the year 1313 a charter for holding a weekly market was obtained by John, the last Earl of Warrenne and Surrey. In 1513 the French attacked Brighthelmstone, ransacked, plundered, and partially burnt the town and vicinity. In 1545 the same enemy, under the command of Claude D'Annebalte, again threatened; but the beacon-fires being lighted on the surrounding hills caused the invaders to decamp. In the reign of Elizabeth, assistance was received from various quarters, and a piece of land granted by the lord of the manor for the erection of defences on the coast. The town was then well protected, Government having sent six heavy pieces of ordnance, with plenty of ammunition. During the reign of James I. and Charles I. repeated attacks were made on the inhabitants: the Dutch constantly interfered with the south coast fisheries.
In 1665 a violent storm washed away some tenements under the cliff, amongst which were several shops and cottages: a similar catastrophe occurred in the years 1703 and 1705; on the last occasion the loss of the inhabitants was computed at £40,000.
In the year 1750 Dr. Richard Russell, an eminent physician, and resident of this town, distinguished himself as an advocate of the then chalybeate water; as also did his successor, Dr. Relhan, who published a work in 1761, entitled "A Short History of Brighthelmstone; with Remarks on its Air, an Analysis of its Waters, &c.": at this period the dawn of Brighton began.
In 1766, West-street formed the western boundary of Brighton, East-street and North-street their respective boundaries as named: in 1768 Dr. Arositer established the first baths in Brighton: in 1773 an Act was obtained, and commissioners appointed, for lighting, cleansing, and repairing the town, also for removing nuisances. In 1782 George IV. (then Prince of Wales), visited his royal uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, who resided near the Steine: the royal patronage was shown in making Brighton his favourite abode. In 1819, during the Regency, the Marine Cottage was converted into a splendid palace, called the Pavilion, which was built in the oriental style, from designs by Nash: it has numerous cupolas, spires, and minarets, much resembling the Kremlin at Moscow, and the interior is richly decorated: the banqueting-room is 60 feet by 42, the music-room the same size, the rotunda 55 feet in diameter; the Chinese gallery is 162 feet in length, decorated with Chinese paintings: the stables are in the Moorish style, and are surmounted by a dome, the circumference of which is within 20 feet of that of St. Paul's; they are now (1866) being converted into an assembly and concert room. In 1840, it having been determined that the Pavilion should no longer be the residence of royalty, the Commissioners of Woods and Forests having intimated to the Commissioners of the town of Brighton its contemplated sale, this magnificent building was eventually purchased by the town at the sum of £53,OO0, on the security of the local rates: the sum of £4,500 was then expended in redecorating and embellishing the rooms, and in June, 1850, the gardens and grounds were opened to the public.
The Brighton Town Museum occupies a suite of rooms in the north wing, and was opened by Professor Owen, November 5th, 1861: the various collections from remote parts of the globe comprise implements of war, ancient coins, quadrupeds, insects and birds, also numerous species of fish, fossil and other natural curiosities, collected at different periods, from the chalk formation on the shores of Sussex and Kent. The geologist, ornithologist, and the curious are amply repaid by a visit to these interesting collections: Sir Charles Dick, Bart., is the curator
Brighton has been greatly improved by the marine wall which was begun in the month of September, 1827, and completed near the end of the year 1838: the length is nearly 2 miles, extending from the lower end of Middle street to Kemp Town: this wall is formed of concrete cement, composed of beach stones, lime and sand: the average height of the wall, from the Chain Pier to Kemp Town, is 60 feet, and the thickness at its base about 23 feet, gradually lessening to about 2 feet at the top: its erection cost nearly £,100,000
Brighton is situated upon that division of the South Downs which lies between the rivers Adur and Ouse: it occupies a valley running north and south, and spreads over a great part of the adjacent hills: on the east the Downs approach the sea, and terminate in steep cliffs; on the west a belt of rich alluvium skirts the sea, from which the Downs gradually recede until, beyond the river Adur, they traverse nearly the centre of the county. The Downs extend between 5O and 60 miles in length, with an average breadth of 7 miles: the mean altitude is about 5OO feet above the level of the sea, but some of the heights attain an elevation of between 800 and 900 feet: on the northern side the descent is steep and abrupt; on the southern it is gradual: in their general outline the Downs, like all mountain ranges of the chalk formation, are rounded in their form: in their original state they are covered with a fine close turf, velvet-like to the feet, and which affords fine pasturage to a race of sheep no less remarkable for the fineness of their wool than for the excellent mutton into which they are converted, and which is thought to owe much of its flavour to the herbs and fine grass which cover the surface of the hills. Although destitute of trees, except on their northern side, the Downs possess beauties peculiarly their own in the long serpentine lines into which they fall, the variety and harmony of their colours, passing from blue through grey to the warmer tints of pale yellow, green, orange and russet, and in the bold and ever-changing masses of shadow which traverse their steep sides as the sun pursues its course. A fresh invigorating breeze always prevails on the Downs, even during the hottest season of the year, hence they are much resorted to for equestrian exercise. Here are also traces of a Roman station and encampments. The soil on which the town is built is of two kinds; that of the eastern portion is chalk formation, while the western part is the termination of a bed of plastic clay, extending many miles in that direction.
The Steine, formerly a piece of waste land, was used by the inhabitants for boat-building and net-making, and as a depository for goods; it has for many years been surrounded by handsome buildings, and is now a spacious and noble promenade, the enclosure of which contains a pedestrian statue of his late Majesty, George IV., by Chantrey, a handsome fountain, and two Russian guns
The hotels in Brighton are of the first class, frequently visited by the crowned heads of Europe. The lodging houses are numerous.
There are two piers, extending each a considerable distance into the sea. The Chain (or east) Pier was commenced in October, 1822, and opened to the public in November of the ensuing year: this light and elegant structure was erected after the design and under the superintendence of Captain Samuel Brown, R.N. at an expense of £30,000: its length is 1,130 feet, and the width 13 feet: the platform is supported by the chains, which, at the south end, pass 64 feet into the cliff, and are there strongly bolted; thence, passing with alternate dips over the towers, they descend into the sea at the furthest extremity, and are imbedded in the rock: the rods by which the platform is hung on the chains are 362 in number, and each division of the chain, of which there are four on each side, formed by the intervention of the towers, has 117 links, each weighing about 112 lbs.: the piles are four in number, at a distance of 258 feet: the towers are of cast iron, each weighing 15 tons, and are 25 feet from the platform, which is itself 13 feet above high water-mark. The marine parade extends nearly a mile long from the Old Steine, eastward.
The West pier, built in 1865-6, at a cost of £25,000, and opened on October 6th, 1866, is a handsome structure, 1,150 feet long, the abutment 225 feet by 110, the body 650 feet by 45 feet, and the outer division 275 feet by 120, erected upon cast and wrought iron screw piles, fixed in rock to a depth of from 7 to 9 feet: the upper floor is 15 feet above high water at Spring tides: it was built by a private company; the engineer is Mr. Birch, of London, the contractors were Messrs. Laidlaw & Son, of Glasgow.
Kemp Town is at the eastern extremity of the Marine-parade, built on the estate of Thomas Read Kemp, Esq., formerly M.P. for Lewes: the principal feature is an extensive crescent and square, the opening between the wings of which is 840 feet, and the wings, each 350 feet in extent, present a frontage towards the sea of 1,540 feet: the glacis is terminated by an esplanade commanding a beautiful and sheltered prospect of the ocean: beneath this, at the base of the cliff on which Kemp Town stands, a road is carried to the west end of the Marine-parade and is united with the gardens and lawns in the centre of the crescent by a tunnel.
The race-course is situated on the summit of the Downs, to the north and north-east of Brighton, on one of the loftiest eminences in the vicinity of the place: it commands an extensive view of the ocean, the town, and the adjacent country: the races are held in the beginning of August. The Metropolitan and Southern County volunteers, to the number of 20,000, are reviewed annually on these downs on Easter Monday.
Queen's Park is situated just where the elevation of the Downs commences, nearly in a direct line with Rock-gardens: it is entered through a Roman arch: the grounds are neatly laid out with flower beds and shrubberies, while the centre of the park is diversified with plantations of hazel and mountain ash: it also contains an archery ground: at the south-western angle of the park is the German spa and pump room, established in 1824, for the manufacture of imitations of most of the continental waters which are identical in their composition with those of their respective natural springs: the pump room is open from March till the end of October: the seltzer water, first made and introduced into this country by the proprietors, Messrs. Struve and Co., is now known as Brighton seltzer water.
The Town Hall is in Market-street and Bartholomews, and is an immense pile of building, with three double porticoes, erected at a cost of £50,000. The town council, collectors and surveyors all have offices in this building, where the magistrates' court is held every day at 11 o'clock, and also the county court, petty sessions, and police station. The upper story also contains a handsome assembly-room, and the great room below is used frequently for meetings. The directors and guardians have spacious offices in Church-street.
The Market House, opposite to the Town Hall, is both lofty and spacious, and is built in the form of the letter T; the principal entrances are in Market-street and Black Lion-street: it is open daily for the sale of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables.
The Corn Market is held every Thursday afternoon from 3 to 5, at the King and Queen inn, in Marlborough-place, where grain is disposed of by sample.
The wholesale Fish Market is held on the beach, near the end of Market-street, and the mode of effecting sales is by Dutch auction.
About 400 persons and 120 boats are employed in fishing for mackerel and herrings: of the latter upwards of 100,000 have been deposited on the beach from one boat: the average number of persons is four to each vessel. The chain of nets used for taking mackerel is of great length, varying from 2 to 3 miles, and thousands of fish are sometimes captured at a single draught: large quantities are dispatched by railway to the London market. The town is also well supplied with every other description of fish.
The West pier, built in 1865-6, at a cost of £25,000, and opened on October 6th, 1866, is a handsome structure, 1,150 feet long, the abutment 225 feet by 110, the body 650 feet by 45 feet, and the outer division 275 feet by 120, erected upon cast and wrought iron screw piles, fixed in rock to a depth of from 7 to 9 feet: the upper floor is 15 feet above high water at Spring tides: it was built by a private company; the engineer is Mr. Birch, of London, the contractors were Messrs. Laidlaw & Son, of Glasgow.
Kemp Town is at the eastern extremity of the Marine-parade, built on the estate of Thomas Read Kemp, Esq., formerly M.P. for Lewes: the principal feature is an extensive crescent and square, the opening between the wings of which is 840 feet, and the wings, each 350 feet in extent, present a frontage towards the sea of 1,540 feet: the glacis is terminated by an esplanade commanding a beautiful and sheltered prospect of the ocean: beneath this, at the base of the cliff on which Kemp Town stands, a road is carried to the west end of the Marine-parade and is united with the gardens and lawns in the centre of the crescent by a tunnel.
The race-course is situated on the summit of the Downs, to the north and north-east of Brighton, on one of the loftiest eminences in the vicinity of the place: it commands an extensive view of the ocean, the town, and the adjacent country: the races are held in the beginning of August. The Metropolitan and Southern County volunteers, to the number of 20,000, are reviewed annually on these downs on Easter Monday.
Queen's Park is situated just where the elevation of the Downs commences, nearly in a direct line with Rock-gardens: it is entered through a Roman arch: the grounds are neatly laid out with flower beds and shrubberies, while the centre of the park is diversified with plantations of hazel and mountain ash: it also contains an archery ground: at the south-western angle of the park is the German spa and pump room, established in 1824, for the manufacture of imitations of most of the continental waters which are identical in their composition with those of their respective natural springs: the pump room is open from March till the end of October: the seltzer water, first made and introduced into this country by the proprietors, Messrs. Struve and Co., is now known as Brighton seltzer water.
The Town Hall is in Market-street and Bartholomews, and is an immense pile of building, with three double porticoes, erected at a cost of £50,000. The town council, collectors and surveyors all have offices in this building, where the magistrates' court is held every day at 11 o'clock, and also the county court, petty sessions, and police station. The upper story also contains a handsome assembly-room, and the great room below is used frequently for meetings. The directors and guardians have spacious offices in Church-street.
The Market House, opposite to the Town Hall, is both lofty and spacious, and is built in the form of the letter T; the principal entrances are in Market-street and Black Lion-street: it is open daily for the sale of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables.
The Corn Market is held every Thursday afternoon from 3 to 5, at the King and Queen inn, in Marlborough-place, where grain is disposed of by sample.
The wholesale Fish Market is held on the beach, near the end of Market-street, and the mode of effecting sales is by Dutch auction.
About 400 persons and 120 boats are employed in fishing for mackerel and herrings: of the latter upwards of 100,000 have been deposited on the beach from one boat: the average number of persons is four to each vessel. The chain of nets used for taking mackerel is of great length, varying from 2 to 3 miles, and thousands of fish are sometimes captured at a single draught: large quantities are dispatched by railway to the London market. The town is also well supplied with every other description of fish.
The Theatre is situated in the New-road: it was enlarged and re-decorated in 1866: the season for dramatic performances commences in July and closes in March: it is usually well attended.
The County Hospital, the first stone of which was laid on the 26th of March, 1826, is a plain but noble building, near Kemp Town, on an elevated piece of ground, presented to it by T. R. Kemp, Esq., who gave, at various times £5,000 towards its erection: it is admirably conducted, and will accommodate 150 patients: there have been two wings added since, called the Adelaide and the Victoria wings. There is a Lying-in Institution in West-street. The Orphan Asylum for girls, in Eastern-road, is an extensive establishment. The Percy Almshouses are opposite Park-crescent; the Howells in George-street. The Brighton and Sussex Dispensary, in Queen's-road, supported by voluntary contributions, is a handsome building of Kentish rag stone; there is also a branch office at Hove. Brighton Asylum, for the instruction of the blind, in the Eastern-road, erected in 1861, at a cost of £4,894, is a handsome Elizabethan building of red brick, faced with Bath stone; it was formally opened by the Bishop of the diocese on the 22nd of October, 1861.
The Assembly Rooms are at the Old Ship Hotel, and in the Town Hall.
Brighton abounds with colleges, first-class schools, and proprietary schools, fitting pupils for the universities and commercial pursuits; boarding schools, schools of art, literary institutions, mechanics' institutions, reading rooms, and libraries, stocked with standard and modern works.
The Odd Fellows' Hall, in Queen's-road, is a neat stone building, where their meetings, concerts, and lectures are held.
The Post Office is in Ship-street. The Cavalry Barracks are on the Lewes-road.
The Workhouse, a spacious building, was erected in 1820: it is situated on the Dyke-road, and is capable of receiving 600 inmates. The board of guardians meet every Tuesday. A new workhouse is now (1866) in the course of erection, and forms an extensive pile of buildings, situate on the Race Hill, about a mile north-east of the town: it covers an area of 7 acres of land: cost of building, £31,147.
Brighton is well lighted by gas, supplied by two companies. The old Brighton gas works at Black Rock, were established in 1818, and the Brighton and Hove Company's works are situated at Hove, and were established in 1825. There is also a new company formed, which has obtained an Act of Parliament this year (1866), called the Aldrington, Hove and Preston Gas company, offices, New-road. The town is also well supplied with water, by the Brighton, Hove, and Preston Water Works Company, the works of which are situated in the Lewes-road, in Preston parish, and together with the reservoirs, extend over 12 to 15 acres of land: the water is raised from wells by powerful engines: the mains and service pipes throughout the three parishes extend about 100 miles: the rate of charges for domestic use is 9d. in the pound on the poor rate assessment. The company's offices are at 12 Bond-street.
The inhabitants of Brighton have also just cause of congratulation on the perseverance, patience, intelligence, and science displayed during a period of four years (at an enormous expense), in procuring an abundant supply of water from an Artesian well: on the 25th of March, 1858, the "Warren Farm well" was commenced on the summit of the South Downs, about 400 feet above the level of the sea, and on the 16th of March, 1862, an undercurrent, 1,285 feet below the surface, was reached, to the great joy of the inhabitants of the town; the first intelligence of this long-looked for desideratum, "water in the well," was hailed with cheers through the town and vicinity of Brighton, and by the ringing of church bells, and public rejoicings and manifestations, together with a substantial dinner given in commemoration thereof to several members of the corporation, the board of directors, and guardians, as also to the officers and men employed in the work; to the latter, gold and silver medals were presented, struck for the occasion.
The Cemeteries are situated a mile and a half north of the town. The parochial cemetery was opened in 1859: the site was given by the late Marquis of Bristol. The extra-mural one, opened in 1851, is the property of a company. Each ground occupies about 20 acres of land, and they have handsome Gothic mortuary chapels.
The old church of St, Nicholas stands on a hill, at the west end of Church-street, about 150 feet from the level of the sea when the water is at ebb, and, from its elevation, is an excellent sea-mark, and the view from the churchyard is one of the most extensive in the vicinity: here are several curious monuments, amongst which is one to Mrs. Crouch, the actress, and another to Captain Tettersell, who assisted Charles II. in his escape to France after the battle of Worcester, in September, 1651; and another to Phoebe Hessel, who served as a soldier in the 5th regiment of foot for many years abroad, and fought at the battle of Fontenoy, under the Duke of Cumberland; she died at the advanced age of 108: in the interior of the Church there is a rude and ancient font, supposed to be of Saxon origin; a representation of the Last Supper is sculptured round its circular edge. The living is a vicarage, with West Blatchington rectory annexed, joint annual value £1,041, with residence, which was completely restored in 1854, in the gift of the Bishop of Chichester, and held by the Rev. Henry Michell Wagner, M.A., surrogate, and treasurer of Chichester Cathedral. The churchyard contains an ancient cross. Including the Chapel Royal, there are 24 churches in Brighton.
St. Peter's church, at the North Level, is a beautiful Gothic structure, and one of the best modern specimens of the kind in England: the style is that of the fourteenth century: the church consists of a lofty nave and two side aisles, upwards of 100 feet in length, the centre projecting in a semi-octagonal sweep, adorned with three handsome windows with ramified tracery: at the west end is a neat tower and four tall pinnacles: it will accommodate, 2,000 persons, and was erected under the superintendence of Mr. Barry, at an expense of about £2O,O00: the interior has been embellished at the expense of the vicar, the Rev. H. M. Wagner, by some beautiful stained windows, representing the Evangelists and Apostles. The living is a perpetual curacy, yearly value £350, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Thomas Cooke, M.A., of Oriel College, Oxford, surrogate and vicar of Brigstock with Stanion.
All Saints' church, Clifton-road, is a flint stone building, in the Early English style, with nave, side aisles, and chancel, and contains a fine-toned organ. The living, annual value £200, is in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Thomas Coombe, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and surrogate.
All Souls' church is situate in the Eastern-road. The living is a perpetual curacy, yearly value £100, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Richard Snowden Smith, M.A.
Christ church, Montpelier-road, is a handsome edifice of stone, with a lofty spire. The living is a perpetual curacy yearly value £420, in the gift of the vicar and held by the Rev. James Vaughan M.A. of Balliol College, Oxford.
St. Anne's church, Burlington-street, is a neat stone building. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Alfred Cooper M.A., of St. John's College, Oxford.
St George's chapel is situate in St George's-road. The living is a valued at £150 per annum, and is in the gift of Lawrence Peel, Esq. and held by the Rev. Jacob Hugo North, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge.
St James' chapel, St. James'-street, was originally a Dissenting meeting-house. The living, valued at £180 per annum, is in the gift of the trustees of the late N. Kemp, Esq. and held by the Rev. John Purchas, M.A., of Christ College, Cambridge. St. John the Evangelist church is situate in Carlton-street, Carlton-hill, and contains 1,400 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued at £90 per annum, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Aaron Augustus Morgan, M.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge.
St. Margaret's chapel is situate in Cannon-place. The living, valued at £150 per annum, is in the gift of Mrs. Du Pre, and held by the Rev. Edmund Clay, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.
St. Mark's church is in Eastern-road, Kemp-town. The living is in the gift of the trustees of St Mary's Hall, and held by the Rev. Edward B. Elliott, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge
St Mary's chapel is situate in Upper St James's-street, built in 1827 by Mr. Wild, and is in the Doric style. The living, valued at £56 per annum, is in the gift of, and held by, the Rev. Julius Elliott, M.A.
St, Paul's Church, in West-street, is a large and handsome building, erected in 1848, partly by voluntary subscriptions: it is built of cut flints with stone quoins, and is intended to be finished with a lofty spire; it is in the Decorated English style: the church is entered by a covered way or cloister: the interior is highly decorated in the Medieval style: the roof of the nave is of timber, that of the chancel is painted blue, with gold stars: several of the windows are of stained glass: it consists of nave, north and south aisles, and chancel, and contains a fine-toned organ: 4 bells have been hung in the unfinished tower. The living is in the gift of the vicar: its value, like most of the other district churches in Brighton, varies in accordance with the pew rents; the Rev. Arthur Douglas Wagner, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, is the incumbent. There are also two other churches attached to St. Paul's, where divine service is performed - viz., St. Mary Magdelen, Bread-street, and the Church of the Annunciation, in Washington-street.
St. Stephen's, in Montpelier-place, is a plain building of stone. The living, annual value £425, is in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Charles Edward Douglass, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.
The Chapel Royal, in Princes-place, North-street, was erected in 1793. The living is valued at £95 yearly, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. Thomas Trocke, M.A., of Pembroke College, Cambridge.
Trinity chapel is situated in Ship-street, The living is a perpetual curacy, yearly value £l50, in the gift of the trustees of the Rev. R. Anderson, and held by the Rev. Edward Vine Hall, M.A., of Morden College Oxford.
St. Michael and All Angels' church, in Powis-road, is a neat building of red brick, faced with Bath stone, erected in 1861 and 1862, in the Gothic style: it has nave, aisles, and chancel, and contains a handsome memorial window to the late Colonel Palmer: there are also several smaller windows of stained glass. The Rev. Charles Beanlands, M.A., of Clare College, Cambridge, is the incumbent.
HOVE:- The Parish church of St. Peter, at Cliftonville, is a flint and stone building in the Norman style, and was thoroughly restored in 1834: the original arches still remain: it consists of nave, chancel, side aisles, and square tower: the east window is filled with stained glass, presented by the Watson family. The register dates from 1814. The living is a vicarage, united with Preston, joint value £300 per annum, in the gift of the Bishop of Chichester, and held by the Rev. Walter Kelly, M.A., of Caius College, Cambridge.
St. John the Baptist church, at the west end of the Western-road, Hove, is cruciform, in the Early English style, with nave, transept, aisles, and chancel: the interior is most beautiful, and contains several elegant windows of stained glass. The living is in the gift of the vicar of Hove, and held by the Rev. Frederick Reade, M.A., of St. John's College, Cambridge.
SS. Patrick and James's church, in Cambridge road, Hove, is a noble edifice of Kentish rag and Bath stone, in the Early Decorated style: it has a lofty nave, chancel, two aisles, and chapels, and is the largest church in Brighton: the entrance is through a cloister: it was erected in 1858, at the sole expense of the Rev. James O'Brien, D.D., who is patron and incumbent.
St. Andrews's chapel, in Waterloo-street, Hove, is a neat building, and contains several handsome marble tablets. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Rev. Mordamut Barnard, and held by the Rev. Henry Beaumont, D.D.
Holy Trinity, Cliftonville, erected in 1864, is a neat brick building: has nave, chancel, and south aisle. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the vicar, and held by the Rev. John F. Taylor, M.A.
St. John the Baptist Roman Catholic church is situate in Bristol-road; the Very Rev. Canon Reardon and Very Rev. Canon Rymer, priests
St. Mary Magdalen Roman Catholic church, in Upper North-street, was opened in February, 1862: it is in the Gothic style: the Rev. G. A. Oldman, priest.
Countess of Huntingdon's chapel is in North-street. The liturgy of the Church of England is used in this chapel: it was built in 1761 by Selina Countess of Huntingdon, who sold her jewels in order to defray the expenses: it has since been enlarged, and can accommodate 1,400; the Rev. J. D. Figgis, M.A., is the minister.
The Congregational church, in Queen's-street, is a neat building of Bath stone, in the Gothic style: the south gable contains a very handsome round window.
There are five chapels for Independents, five for Baptists, one for the Society of Friends, one for Unitarians, three for Wesleyans, two for Primitive Methodists, and two for Bible Christians.
There are five banks. The Brighton Union Bank is in North-street; the London and County Joint Stock Banking Company have branches in Pavilion-buildings and in the Western-road, Hove; the Hampshire Banking Company, North-street, with a branch in Western-road. The Brighton and Sussex Floricultural and Horticultural Society, was established in 1853; the shows are held annually in the Pavilion in June and September: terms of membership, annual subscription, one guinea. Brighton supports six newspapers; for days of publication, &c., see miscellaneous information.
The railway terminus, at the north end of Queen's-road, is a magnificent pile of buildings, having a colonnade in front, containing an illuminated clock: the station and its various offices have been much enlarged, and now cover an area of twenty acres, where there are upwards of 1,200 mechanics, &c., engaged in the building and repairing of locomotives, carriages, &c., and 150 in the traffic department: besides the main line to London, there are three branch lines, the one to the east runs to Lewes and Hastings, another to the west, to Worthing, Chichester, and Portsmouth, and the other to Steyning, Henfield, Horsham and Guildford; there is also a short branch in course of construction (1866) from the present terminus to Kemp Town. The town of Brighton consists of about 400 streets and squares, extending from east to west about 3 miles, having a sea frontage of a magnificent range of houses, not to be surpassed in grandeur in any watering place in Europe. The acreage of the parish is 1,980. The houses and population in the parliamentary borough show an increase in ten years from 1851 to 1861.

Inhabited houses,Population,Increase.
1851.1861.1851.1861 
10,84313,94669,07387,31117,638

The parliamentary borough was constituted by the Reform Act in 1832, and sends two members to parliament. The corporation consists of the mayor, the recorder, twelve aldermen, and thirty-six councillors, being six for each ward.
For municipal purposes the borough is divided into six wards, namely, Pavilion Ward, Pier Ward, Park Ward, St. Peter's Ward, St. Nicholas' Ward, and West Ward. The government of the town is under a stipendiary magistrate (Arthur Bigge, Esq. ) the mayor and borough magistrates, who sit at the Town Hall daily, a chief officer of police, two superintendents, five inspectors, four sergeants, and sixty-nine constables. The other authorities are the borough magistrates, the magistrates for the county for the Brighton division, and the directors and guardians, who are independent of the New Poor act, having the management of their own poor.
HOVE and CLIFTONVILLE, on the west, is a distinct parish, delightfully and pleasantly situated, and which was but a few years ago a small village, consisting of a few scattered houses; it is now considered the most fashionable part of Brighton, and several new streets and villas are now (1866) in course of erection: it has a distinct municipal government. It is in Preston hundred, Lewes rape, and Steyning union and contained in 1851 a population of 4,104, and in 1861 of 9,624; the acreage is 872.
There are five churches, viz., the parish church of St. Peter, at Cliftonville. St. Andrew's, in Waterloo-street; St. John the Baptist, at the end of Western-road; St. James, in Cambridge-road; and the Holy Trinity, Ventnor-villas, a description of which, will be found in the Brighton list of churches.
There are several handsome squares, streets, and terraces situated in this district. Mr. William Rigden, of Hove House, the celebrated breeder of South Down sheep, occupies nearly the whole of the land in the parish.
Wick House, formerly the residence of Sir Francis Goldsmid, Bart., M.P., and now a gentlemen's boarding school, is situated here: the chalybeate spa is situated in the grounds: further on are Old and New Shoreham, Aldrington ruins, Lancing, with its tessellated Roman pavements, Worthing, and the Miller's Tomb, on Highdown Hill, with Arundel, its castle, keep and dairy in the distance. The eastern route leads to the delightful village of Rottingdean, contiguous to the sea shore, Lewes, Newhaven, and that fashionable watering place, Eastbourne, with its mineral springs: also, a little westward, is Beachy Head.
On the north and north-west is the DEVIL'S DYKE, 5 miles from Brighton, (over the Downs, formerly known by the name of Poor Man's Wall, which exhibits in its deep trenches, the form and extent of a Roman encampment: the extensive view from the summit is unequalled in the county of Sussex: it is situated 8 miles from Chanctonbury, and immediately above the picturesque village of Poynings: the Dyke approaches an oval in form, and is nearly a mile in circumference: it is accessible at a narrow neck only, and that fortified with a deep broad ditch and a very high vallum; from this there are views of the fertile vale to the right and left, extending over six counties, while to the south, every object upon the ocean, between Beachy Read on the east and the Isle of Wight to the west, may be plainly discerned; it is therefore a favourite resort of visitors. Other places of resort are the romantic village of Preston, and Hollingsbury Castle with its Roman encampment.

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